Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear. According to common Two robbers threerobbery is defined as taking the property of another, with the intent to permanently deprive the person of that property, by means of force or fear; Two robbers three is, it is a larceny or theft accomplished by an assault.
Robbery is differentiated from other forms of theft such as burglaryshopliftingor car theft by its inherently violent nature a violent crime ; whereas many lesser forms of theft are punished as misdemeanorsrobbery is always a felony in jurisdictions that distinguish between the two.
Under English law, most forms of theft are triable either waywhereas robbery is triable only on indictment. The word "rob" came via French from Late Latin words e.
Among the types of robbery are armed robberywhich involves the use of a weaponand aggravated robberywhen someone brings with them a deadly weapon or something that appears to be a deadly weapon.
Highway robbery or mugging takes place outside or in a public place such as a sidewalk, street, or parking lot. Two robbers three is the act of stealing a car from a victim by force. Extortion is the threat to do something illegal, or the offer to not do something illegal, in the event that goods are not given, primarily using words instead of actions.
Criminal slang for robbery includes "blagging" armed robbery, usually of a bank or "stick-up" derived from the verbal command to Two robbers three targets to raise their hands in the airand " steaming " organized robbery on underground train systems.
In Canada, the Criminal Code makes robbery an indictable offencesubject to a maximum penalty of life imprisonment. If the accused uses a restricted or prohibited firearm to commit robbery, there is a mandatory minimum sentence of five years for the first offence, and seven years for subsequent offences.
Robbery is a statutory offence in the Republic of Ireland. A person is guilty of robbery if he or she steals, and immediately before or at the time of doing so, and in order to do so, uses force on any person or puts or seeks to put any person in fear of being then and there subjected to force.
Robbery is a statutory offence in England and Wales. A person is guilty of robbery if Two robbers three steals, and immediately before or at the time of doing so, and in order to do Two robbers three, he uses force on any person or puts or seeks to put any person in fear of being then and there subjected to force.
Robbery is the only offence of aggravated theft.
There are no offences of aggravated robbery. This requires evidence to show a theft as set out in section 1 1 of the Theft Act In R v Two robbers three  the defendant threatened the victim with a knife in order to recover money which he was actually owed. His conviction for robbery was quashed on the basis that Robinson had an honest, although unreasonable, belief under Section 2 1 a of the Act in his legal right to the money.
In R v Hale  the application of force and the stealing took place in different locations, and it was not possible to establish the timing; it was held that the appropriation necessary to prove Two robbers three was a continuing act, and the jury could correctly convict of robbery; this approach was followed in R v Lockley  when the force was applied to a shopkeeper after property had been taken.
It was argued that the theft should be regarded as complete by this time, and R v Gomez should apply; the court disagreed, preferring to follow R v Hale.
The threat or use of force must take place immediately before or at the time of the theft. Force used after the theft is complete will Two robbers three turn the theft into a robbery. The words "or immediately after" that appeared in section 23 1 Two robbers three of the Larceny Act were deliberately omitted from section 8 1.
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The book "Archbold" said that the facts in R v Harman,  which did not amount to robbery inwould not amount to robbery now.
It was held in R v Dawson Two robbers three James  that "force" is an ordinary English word and its meaning should be left to the jury.
This approach was confirmed in R v Clouden  and Corcoran v Anderton Two robbers three,  both handbag-snatching cases. Stealing may involve a young child who is not aware that taking other persons' property is not in order.
The victim must be placed in apprehension or fear that force would be used immediately before or at the time of the taking of the property. A threat is not immediate if the wrongdoer threatens to use force of violence some future time. Robbery occurs if an aggressor forcibly snatched a mobile phone or if they used a knife to make an implied threat of violence to the holder and then took the phone.
The person being threatened does not need to be the owner of Two robbers three property. It is not necessary that the victim was actually frightened, but the defendant must have put or sought to put the victim or some other person in fear of immediate force. The force or threat may be directed against a third party, for example a customer in a jeweller's shop. Dishonestly dealing with property stolen during a robbery will constitute an offence of handling.
Robbery is an indictable-only offence. Two robbers three
Under current sentencing guidelines, the punishment for robbery is affected by a variety of aggravating and mitigating factors. Particularly important is how much harm was caused to the victim and how much culpability the offender had e. Robbery is divided into three categories which are, in increasing order of seriousness: Robbery generally results in a custodial sentence. Only a low-harm, low-culpability robbery with other mitigating factors would result in an alternative punishment, in the form of a high level community order.
Current sentencing guidelines advise that the sentence should be no longer than 20 years, for a high-harm, high-culpability robbery with other aggravating factors. An offender may also serve a longer sentence if they are convicted of other offences alongside the robbery, such as assault and grievous bodily harm. Robbery was an offence under the common law of England. Matthew Hale provided the following definition:. Robbery is the felonious and violent taking of any money or goods from the person of another, putting him in fear, be the value thereof above or under one shilling.
The common law Two robbers three of robbery was abolished for all purposes not relating to offences committed before 1 January  by section 32 1 a of the Theft Act See sections 40 to 43 of the Larceny Two robbers three Section 23 of the Larceny Act read:.
This section provided maximum penalties Two robbers three a number of offences of robbery and aggravated robbery. If a robbery is foiled before it can be completed, an alternative offence with the same penalty, given by section 8 2 of the Act is assault; any act which intentionally or recklessly causes another to fear the immediate and unlawful use of force, with an intent to rob, will suffice.
Assault with intent to rob is an indictable-only offence. Assault with intent to rob is also subject to the mandatory sentencing regime under the Criminal Justice Act Robbery is a statutory offence in Northern Ireland. It is created by section 8 of the Theft Act Northern Ireland In the United States, robbery is generally treated as an aggravated form of common law larceny.
Specific elements and definitions differ from state to state. The common elements of Two robbers three are:.
The first six elements are the same as common law larceny. It is the last two elements that aggravate the crime to common law robbery. This is different from larceny which simply requires that property be taken from the victim's possession, actual or constructive.
Property is "on the victim's person" if the victim is actually holding the property, or the property is contained within clothing the victim is wearing or is attached to a victim's body such as a watch or earrings.
For there to be robbery there must be "force Two robbers three fear" in perpetrating the theft. Merely snatching the property from the victim's person is not sufficient force unless the victim resists or one of the items is attached or carried in such a way that a significant amount of force must be used to free the item from the victim's person.
For robbery the victim Two robbers three be Two robbers three in "fear" of immediate harm by threat or intimidation. The threat need not be directed at the victim personally. Threats to third parties are sufficient. The threat must be one of present rather than future personal harm.
Fear does not mean "fright",  it means apprehension — an awareness of the danger of immediate bodily harm. The maximum sentence for robbery in California is 9 years, according to Penal Code section a 1 A.
The threat or use of force does not have to take place immediately before or at the time of Two robbers three theft. The theft is considered completed when the perpetrator reaches a place of temporary safety with the property.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime notes "that when using the figures, any cross-national comparisons should be conducted with caution because of the differences that exist between the legal definitions of offences in countries, or the different methods of offence counting and recording". The last thing to Two robbers three is that crime will vary by certain neighborhoods or areas in each country, so, just because a nationwide rate is a specified rate, does not mean that everywhere in that country retains the same amount of danger or safety.
Robberies have been depicted, sometimes graphically, in various forms of media, and several robbers have become pop iconssuch as Bonnie and Clyde and John Dillinger. Examples of media works focused on robberies include:.
The Heist and Payday 2 are both games by Overkill Software where one Two robbers three the main objectives is to steal items of monetary value at places such as banks, art galleries, armored trucks, and more. The gang's leader, Dutch van der Linde, sees himself as a revolutionary and believes that the gang could be an example to others who would follow their lead.
The player has the option to commit various acts of robbery, such as store robbery, train robbery, bank robbery and house break-ins. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Two robbers three has been suggested that Footpad be merged into this article. Discuss Proposed since January For other uses, see Robbery disambiguation. For other uses, see Robber disambiguationHoldup disambiguationand Stick up disambiguation. This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, using references to reliable sourcesrather than simply listing appearances.