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Partying with a purpose: Finding meaning in an online "party 'n' play" subculture [Masters thesis]. California State University, Long Beach.
Frederick December The Internet has long been utilized by gay men and men who have sex with men MSM as a space for the seeking-out of deviant behaviors such as condomless sex and the use of popular "party drugs. Such an analysis is important not only for criminal justice, but also for the field of Juvenile homosexual males facial cumeating criminology, which seeks to inform both the criminal justice system and law enforcement professionals of the need for cultural sensitivity.
Chair Charles Bozza, Ph.
In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, Juvenile homosexual males facial cumeating note will indicate the deletion. Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
Dina Perrone, who introduced me to the world of cultural criminology—thus forever changing my perspective on crime and deviance. Not only did she challenge me in areas that no one had ever challenged me, she Juvenile homosexual males facial cumeating me permission to stop trying to save the world. Instead, she taught me to seek to understand it—indeed, a far nobler calling.
I would also like to thank my thesis committee, Dr. Charles Bozza, and Dr. Robert Schug for their patience, as well as for their time and effort in shepherding me through the thesis process. Through their selflessness, they provided me with the direction that helped turn a potential failure into a glowing success.
For this reason they are as much the creators of this body of work as I am.
I would also like to thank my graduate advisor, Dr. Connie Ireland; were it not for her suggestion that I might be critically oriented, I would not have started down the path that has led me to where I am today. As well, her concern for me above and beyond that of a graduate advisor gave me the first taste of what it was like to have a true colleague in academia.
I trust she knows that her efforts were not in vain. I am also deeply grateful for the love and support of my parents, Marlene and Larry, and their partners, Paula and Barbara.
It cannot be easy to watch your adult child re-experience issues surrounding self-esteem and self-worth; and yet, they too kept their faith in me throughout both my undergraduate and graduate studies.
I am eternally grateful for their unconditional love; I know that it will be a significant source of nourishment as I enter the next phase of my education: Last, I am thankful for the examples set by my brilliant younger siblings Chad and Hillary. This thesis is dedicated to all gay men who party with a purpose—whether they are aware of that purpose or not. It has also inspired me to continue working in this area.
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Finally, I dedicate this thesis to my dear friend Jonathan Lochrie, whose penchant for partying inspired me to initially tackle the topic of drug use in the gay community, and whose decision to stop partying continues to inspire others.
Examples of Harm Reduction Notes taken from the virtual field Ad that uses drug argot i. Craigslist ad that includes information from all of the four domains Pie chart showing percentage of PnP ads, by region Craigslist ad in which height is listed but not weight Craigslist ad in which letters are used to list weight Craigslist ad using alphanumeric characters to list height Craigslist ad using letters to list height and w eight Craigslist ad featuring PnP-related argots Craigslist ad with inconsistent usage of ellipses Craigslist ad in which poster admonishes unknown Juvenile homosexual males facial cumeating Craigslist ad in which oral sex is sought Craigslist ad in which a top seeks a bottom Craigslist ad in which a bottom seeks a top Craigslist ad in which poster seeks masturbationonly Craigslist ad in which group sex is sought Craigslist ad in which group Juvenile homosexual males facial cumeating is an option Yet, Internet drug seeking has soared e.
This is particularly the case with methamphetamine even though the behavioral sciences have stressed the dangers of using illicit party drugs e.
All of these behaviors i. Nonetheless, the criminal justice system, in addition to the fields of public health, psychology, and addiction science continues to "strip" PnP of its subcultural features by criminalizing, medicalizing, and pathologizing its attendant behaviors. It is not surprising, then, that it has been so difficult to create effective policies to address PnP. For this reason, cultural criminologists e.
Becker,such as the anonymous seeking of illicit drugs on the Internet. Without an understanding of their culture, their rituals, and the ways in which they present themselves—indeed, without understanding the members themselves—it is easier for criminologists, criminal justice practitioners, public health administrators, and behavioral health scientists to Juvenile homosexual males facial cumeating to criminalize them, to medicalize them, and to pathologize them.
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Ads are posted 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, all year-round. Some ads feature pictures, most consist of only a few easy-to-read lines of text, some creative, some straightforward.
Where pictures are included, they often depict graphic or grotesque sexual images. But, PnPers are more than their penchant for drugs and sex; there are other distinct similarities in the ways in which these men present themselves—the ideals they espouse, the preferences they convey, and even the symbols and words they use and how they construct them as a Juvenile homosexual males facial cumeating of dialogue—that suggest they have more in common.
In fact, cultural criminologists would argue that many of them share a common bond or a collective experience and that, much like the gay men who engaged in civil disobedience during the late s and throughout the s, their saturnalia also has meaning—they are a subculture with rituals, norms, and argots e.
Most of the evidence suggests that PnP is a gay phenomenon and that the origin of this subculture can be traced back to Juvenile homosexual males facial cumeating early years of the AIDS epidemic e. The stigmatizing effects of having been criminalized, medicalized, and pathologized can also be linked to the use of the Internet as a means by which this subcultural group can remain anonymous and thus hide its seeking out of certain high-risk drug- and sex-related behaviors e.
In doing so, it also addresses the following research questions: What, if any, are the subcultural characteristics and rituals associated with PnP? How is Craigslist used as a social space by PnPers seeking drug-driven sexual experiences with other men?
How do they present themselves? These questions differ from those normally asked by criminal justice practitioners— or by researchers in the field of public health or the behavioral sciences— in that they do not seek answers regarding frequency, effects, consequences, or predictability.
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Instead, cultural criminology challenges us to ask questions that provide a better understanding of the meanings underlying their behavior. In addition, it insists that we give individuals the opportunity to answer these questions themselves. To understand this PnP subculture on Craigslist, a theoretical framework was constructed that was comprised of the works of well-known cultural theorists Clifford GeertzErving Goffman, and James P.
Spradleysubcultural deviance theorists Howard Becker and Dick Hebdigelabeling theorist Edwin Lemertand select readings from the realm of cultural criminology e.
A review of the literature on stigma as it is experienced by the gay culture generallyand the PnP subculture specifically was also performed to provide an overall understanding of the emergence of this subculture. Gay cultural and subcultural rituals as expressed through celebrations such as parades and dance parties, not to mention the use of drugs and sex among gay men is explored to describe the foundation of the meanings attached to PnP.
A description of the methods employed will be provided, as well as a discussion of the relevant findings and their implications for Juvenile homosexual males facial cumeating. In this chapter, several key theoretical and methodological concepts from the fields of cultural criminology and subcultural deviance theory will be presented. These will be supported by past and current studies in order to acquaint the Juvenile homosexual males facial cumeating with two distinct bodies of thought that, while seemingly extraneous to criminal justice, are nonetheless essential to its continued existence in that they present alternative viewpoints for approaching criminal justice topics—alternatives that may assist criminal justice professionals and policymakers in finding more effective and long-lasting solutions.
As well, a review of the relevant literature concerning the drug- and sex-related behaviors particular to both the gay community and the PnP subculture will be presented. This chapter will also explore the characteristics of gay culture; beginning with a brief overview of the gay rights movement, and followed by a description of gay signs, symbols, and language. This will be followed by an exploration of gay subcultures and the PnP subculture, as well as an examination of gay subcultural expression as a counterconstruction of the dominant gay culture.
This thesis is dedicated to...
Essentially, all human behavior is embedded in and emerges from cultural norms and expectations, even if the behavior is criminal or otherwise deviates from those norms Hebdige, Although cultural criminology has been and continues to be influenced by many academic Juvenile homosexual males facial cumeating, H.
Both institutions played important roles in the rethinking of criminological theory, and both were instrumental in the formation of subcultural theories of deviance. What is more, cultural criminologists also consider the interplay of such factors as race, class, and gender Ferrell et al.
According to cultural criminologists e.
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Only then can researchers begin to uncover the complex, subjective meaning systems that different groups of people use in order to make sense of themselves and others Geertz, ; Spradley, And, only then can criminologists, cultural or otherwise, make recommendations for policies that address all the factors related to such problems as crime, drug usage, and the transmission of disease.
Geertz held that culture was an amorphous, semiotic construct that was inseparable from its signs and symbols; in fact, he believed that culture and meaning were one in the Juvenile homosexual males facial cumeating.
Geertz and others e. Ethnography typically begins with fieldwork, an often lengthy process that involves the observation of social discourse Geertz, ; it can be conducted virtually anywhere culture exists, including criminal subcultures: Williams,in nightclubs e.
These observations are inscribed i. Through thick descriptions the culture can be understood, the subculture can be understood, the meanings attached to the behaviors and rituals of that culture and subculture can be understood, and the ways in which members of the culture and subculture present themselves can be understood.
Juvenile homosexual males facial cumeating
This thesis combines two ethnographic methods that are commonly used by cultural criminologists. Presenting the Self Although not an ethnographer himself, Erving Goffman was a sociologist who took great interest in human social interaction, focusing primarily on the face-to-face exchanges that occurred between individuals and groups. Researchers have also studied the presentations of those who engage in stigmatized behaviors such as drug use e.
Controlling impressions happens all the time and everywhere; through our presentations we seek to control the impressions given to others within and outside our cultural or subcultural groups. Controlling impressions is particularly important for deviant groups who seek to remain undetectable or hidden from rule enforcers, but distinguishable to others in the deviant group— gang tattoos e.
National Institute of Justice, are good examples. This thesis is dedicated to all gay men who party with a purpose—whether they are . and, to explain juvenile delinquency—without exploring the entire life Juvenile homosexual males facial cumeating ), referred to the manner in which a homosexual gay man affected the Unlike the typical face-to-face ethnography, which has a specific location in.
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